Reported speech

Direct speech Reported speech
present simple →
I play the guitar
past simple
He said he played the guitar
present continuous →
They are watching a film
past continuous
He told us they were watching a film
will →
I'll call you later
She said she would call me later
can →
He can work until 9.00
She told me he could work until 9.00
Tell is followed by an object

He told me (that) he was hungry. He told that he was hungry.

Say is not followed by an object

She said she worked in France. She said me she worked in France.

When the present simple is used to describe a habit, we don't need to change the verb tense in reported speech

I get up at 6 a.m. → She said that she gets up at 6 a.m.


Requests and offers What can I do for you?

Request Response Offer
I'd like to (try) ...
Would it be possible to ...?
Would you be able to ...?
Could you recommend ...?
No problem.
Yes, of course.
Would you like me to ...?
Do you want me to (get a) ...?
Shall I ...?

A: Could you recommend a good cafe?
B: Yes, got to The Cafe on the Bridge. It serves great coffee! Do you want me to take you there?



Agree Disagree Opinion
That's right
That's true
I totally disagree...
I'm not sure about that...
I don't think so...
I'm afraid... I totally disagree.
I'm sorry, but ... it's just not possible.
I think...
I don't think...
In my opinion... we should...

First conditional

If / When + present + will + infinitive.
Use it to talk about situations in the future.
Use if for a situation which is likely.
Use when for a situation which is certain.
It is also possible to use may / might / could / should instead of will.

If we see Ann, we'll ask her to call you.
We'll ask Ann to call you if we see her.
If we will see Ann, we'll ask her to call you.

If I pass my driving test today, I'll be very surprised.
When I pass my driving test, my father will buy me a car.

If it's sunny, we might have a picnic later.
When they arrive, they should call to tell us.


Second conditional

If + past simple + would / wouldn't + infinitive.
Use it to talk about an imaginary situation in the present or future

If I knew way to museum, I would tell you.
(I don't know the way to museum)

If I won the lottery, I would never work again.
(I'm very unlikely to win)

Use If I were you ... to give advice

If I were you, I'd tell him your plans.
If I was you ...

It is also possible to use could

If I could sing, I would start a band